Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) FM 21-20 / TC 3-22.20 Training Info

TC 3-22.20 Chapter 10 – Endurance and Mobility Activities

Chapter 10

Endurance and Mobility Activities

“Each morning in Africa a gazelle wakes up. It knows it must outrun the fastest lion or it will be killed. Every morning in Africa, a lion wakes up. It knows it must run faster than the slowest gazelle or it will starve. It doesn’t matter whether you’re a lion or a gazelle, when the sun comes up, you’d better be running.”

Roger Bannister, first person to run a mile in under four minutes (3:59.4)

Warrior tasks and battle drills require the ability to move quickly on foot. Running short distances at high speed is essential to moving under direct and indirect fire (Figure 10-1).

RUNNING

10-1. The purpose of running is to improve the overall conditioning of the Soldier by developing endurance. Endurance spans a continuum between aerobic and anaerobic systems. Aerobic endurance is developed by performing low to moderate intensity activities for a long duration. Anaerobic endurance is developed by performing high-intensity activities for a short duration, resting, and then repeating the sequence. Aerobic training alone does not fully prepare Soldiers for the functional endurance and strength requirements of WTBDs. The analysis of the physical demands needed to successfully accomplish WTBDs demonstrates a more significant requirement for anaerobic endurance. In order to train the complete spectrum of endurance, speed running, sustained running, and foot movement under load must be performed. The running activities described in this chapter may be performed individually or collectively. Table 10-1 describes endurance and mobility activities used in PRT. Table 10-2 describes endurance and mobility activities and the prescription of intensity, duration, and volume within the toughening and sustaining phases. In addition, Chapter 5, Planning Considerations, provides the template for commanders and PRT leaders to implement endurance and mobility activities into their PRT programs.

Table 10-1. Endurance and mobility activities

Endurance and Mobility Activities
Military Movement Drills 1 and 2 (MMD 1&2) These drills dynamically prepare the body for more vigorous running activities and develop motor efficiency.
30:60s and 60:120s 30:60s and 60:120s improve the resistance to fatigue of the active muscles by repeatedly exposing them to high intensity effort. As a result of their increased anaerobic and aerobic endurance, Soldiers will be able to sustain performance of physically demanding tasks at a higher intensity for a longer duration.
300-yard Shuttle Run (SR) The 300-yard Shuttle Run develops the ability to repeatedly sprint after changing direction. It is an indicator of the Soldier’s anaerobic endurance, speed, and agility.
Hill Repeats (HR) Hill repeats are an effective means of developing explosive leg strength, anaerobic power, and speed.
Ability Group Run (AGR) Ability group runs train Soldiers in groups of near-equal ability to sustain running for improvement in aerobic endurance.
Unit Formation Run (UFR) Unit formation runs are based on a time and distance that can be achieved with unit integrity and a display of unit cohesion.
Release Run (RR) Release runs combine the benefits of formation running and individual performance at higher training intensities. Soldiers will run in formation to a specified time (no more than 15 minutes), then are released to run as fast as they can back to the starting point.
Terrain Run (TR) Terrain running applies the Train as you will fight principle to PRT. Running through local training areas, over hills, and around obstacles improves mobility, endurance, and the ability to stop, start, and change direction.
Foot March (FM) Foot marching as a movement component of maneuver, is a critical Soldier physical requirement. Regular foot marching prepares Soldiers to successfully move under load.
Conditioning Obstacle Course (CDOC) Running the conditioning obstacle course for time challenges Soldiers’ strength, endurance, and mobility, improving individual movement techniques.
Endurance Training Machines (ETM) Use of endurance training equipment may be based on environmental constraints, safety for Soldiers on physical profile, and isolation of specific muscle groups to be trained during rehabilitation and reconditioning.

Table 10-2. Endurance and mobility activity prescription

Endurance and Mobility Activities
Activities Toughening Phase (BCT & OSUT-R/W/B) Sustaining Phase (AIT & OSUT-B/G) Sustaining Phase ARFORGEN (Reset) Sustaining Phase ARFORGEN (Train/Ready) Sustaining Phase ARFORGEN (Available)
MMD 1 1 rep 1 rep 1 rep 1 rep 1 rep
MMD 2 N/A 1 rep 1 rep 1 rep 1 rep
30:60s 6-8 reps 6-10 reps w/wo load 6-10 reps w/wo load 10-15 reps w/wo load 10-15 reps w/wo load
60:120s 6-10 reps 6-10 reps 6-10 reps 6-10 reps 6-10 reps
300-yd SR 1 rep 1-2 reps w/wo load 1-2 reps 1-2 reps w/wo load 1-2 reps w/wo load
HR N/A 6-8 reps uphill or downhill 6-10 reps uphill or downhill 6-10 reps uphill or downhill 6-10 reps uphill or downhill
AGR 10-30 min 20-30 min 20-30 min 20-30 min 20-30 min
UFR 20-30 min 20-30 min 30 min 30 min 30 min
RR 20-30 min 20-30 min 30 min 30 min 30 min
TR N/A 20 min 20-30 min 20-30 min 20-30 min
FM 2-15 Km 2-15 Km 10 Km or less 10-30 Km 10-30 Km
CDOC 1 rep 1 rep 1 rep 1 rep 1 rep
ETM N/A N/A 20-30 min 20-30 min 20-30 min
Abbreviations MMD-Military Movement Drill SR-Shuttle Run HR-Hill Repeats AGR-Ability Group Run UFR-Unit Formation Run RR-Release Run TR-Terrain Run FM-Foot March (fl/aml/eaml) CDOC-Conditioning Obstacle Course ETM-Endurance Training Machines

TRAINING AREA

10-2. Running is conducted over a variety of terrain:

  • Hardball (improved and unimproved roads).
  • Grassy fields.
  • Tracks.
  • Wooded areas.
  • Hills.
  • Tank trails.

UNIFORM

10-3. The commander will specify the appropriate uniform based on the type of running activity to be performed. PRT uniforms appropriate for running include:

  • IPFU.
  • ACUs and running shoes.
  • ACUs and boots.
  • ACUs with boots and fighting load.

EQUIPMENT

10-4. Equipment used will be IAW installation safety policy requirements (flashlights, reflective vests/bands, traffic cones, AGR route markers placed at ¼ mile intervals). The PRT leader and AI must monitor run time and pace during the conduct of running activities.

FORMATION

10-5. Formations used in unit running are squad, platoon, company, and battalion in column. Other types of running such as terrain running or speed running will be conducted in one or more columns as determined by the training area and installation safety standing operating procedures.

LEADERSHIP

10-6. The PRT leader and AIs must be able to demonstrate and lead all types of running activities. They must also be familiar with formations, commands, cadence, and placement of Soldiers into ability groups for sustained and speed running.

INSTRUCTION AND EXECUTION

10-7. Running may be performed individually or collectively. When conducting collective training, running is optimized when Soldiers are grouped by near-equal ability. The best way to assign Soldiers to ability groups is by their most recent 1-mile run time assessment. The optimal time and range between each group is 60 seconds. When performing formation sustained running, the PRT leader should be on the left side of the formation and toward the rear to have a full view of all Soldiers and maintain control. Speed running may be conducted individually or collectively by ability group, on a track or designated running area. When conducting speed running, the PRT leader will control running and recovery times from the center of the track or running area using a whistle and stopwatch. Assistant instructors may run with the Soldiers to provide positive motivation and running form corrections.

PRECISION

10-8. Soldiers should be instructed on the running form guidelines in this chapter. Running with optimal body mechanics allows greater efficiency with less chance of injury. Soldiers should strive to demonstrate and maintain proper running form during all running activities.

PROGRESSION

10-9. In the toughening phase, Soldiers perform speed running (30:60s, 60:120s, and the 300-yard SR) and sustained running. Initially, Soldiers perform six repetitions of 30:60s and progress up to 8 repetitions, and then begin performing 60:120s, 6 repetitions progressing to 10 repetitions. The intensity for speed running during the 30-and 60-second work intervals is 75 to 85 percent maximal effort. During the 60-and 120-second recovery intervals, all Soldiers walk until the next work interval begins. At the completion of 30:60s or 60:120s, Soldiers walk two to three minutes before engaging in other PRT activities or recovery. The SR is performed only one time when performed as an activity during a PRT session, in conjunction with 60:120s. The PRT leader designates the number of repetitions and signals the start of each group or individual. Formation running is conducted for no longer than 30 minutes in the toughening phase. All running courses should be marked at ¼mile intervals so PRT leaders can monitor split times to ensure the maintenance of the appropriate running pace. Sustained running progression is built into the PRT training schedules through the employment of release runs and by moving Soldiers from lower ability groups to higher ability groups.

10-10. In the sustaining phase, Soldiers continue to perform the speed and sustained running activities from the toughening phase. In addition, HR, terrain running, and speed running under load are performed. Hill repeats start with 6 repetitions and add no more than 1 repetition every 2 weeks, not to exceed 10 repetitions. The PRT leader designates the number of repetitions and signals the start of each group or individual. Sustained running should not exceed 30 minutes in the sustaining phase. All running courses should be marked at ¼-mile intervals so PRT leaders can monitor split times to ensure the maintenance of the appropriate running pace. Sustained running progression is accomplished by moving the Soldier from a lower ability group to the next higher ability group. Terrain running is only conducted in the sustaining phase. Distances should generally be 1 mile for densely wooded areas and up to 2 miles on tank trails and open fields. During the sustaining phase, the 300-yard SR may be performed in ACUs and boots, progressing to individual body armor (IOTV) without plates, then with plates, then with fighting load. Caution must be used when determining appropriate progression. Environmental considerations are important in the ramp of progression. Repetitions, pace, load, uniform, and total exercise time must be adjusted when exercising at high altitudes and in hot, humid environments. Refer to Appendix D for environmental considerations.

INTEGRATION

10-11. The variety of running activities conducted during the toughening phase (30:60s, 60:120s, the 300-yd shuttle run, release runs, AGR, and unit formation running) and sustaining phase (30:60s, 60:120s, the 300-yd shuttle run, release runs, hill repeats, AGR, and unit formation running) integrate anaerobic and aerobic training. The 300-yard SR, in both the toughening and sustaining phases, and sustaining phase terrain running are also integrated to develop Soldier skills.

COMMANDS

10-12. Calling of cadence and commands is the responsibility of the PRT leader or ability group leader. The command, ―Double Time, MARCH‖ starts the formation running. The command ―Quick Time, MARCH‖ terminates formation running (see FM 3-21.5, Drill and Ceremonies). After performance of preparation and any previous PRT activities (military movement drills 1 and/or 2), the Soldiers will jog for about ¼ mile before the first repetition of 30:60s or 60:120s is performed. When conducting 30:60s, 60:120s, or HR en masse, the PRT leader will control work (running phase) and recovery (walking phase) times from the center of the track or running area. The PRT leader will initiate the work (run/hill) interval by signaling with one whistle blast. At the conclusion of the work (run/hill) interval (30 or 60 seconds), the PRT leader will signal with two short whistle blasts. At the conclusion of the recovery (walk) interval (60 or 120 seconds), the PRT leader will again signal with one short whistle blast. This sequence is repeated until the desired number of repetitions is completed. Soldiers of varied abilities run for different numbers of repetitions during the toughening phase. Soldiers who finish early will continue to walk until all Soldiers have completed the activity. At the end of the activity, the entire group will walk for 2 to 3 minutes before performing any subsequent activities or recovery.

FORM

10-13. Running form varies from Soldier to Soldier. Anatomical variations cause a variety of biomechanical manifestations. Many individual variations may be successful. Attempts to force Soldiers to conform to one standard may do more harm than good; however, there are some basic guidelines that may improve running efficiency without overhauling the natural stride. Generally, the form and technique for all types of running is fairly constant. The following information addresses optimal running form for the major body segments (Figure 10-2).

HEAD

10-14. The head should be held high, with the chin pointed forward, neither up nor down. Allowing the head to ride forward puts undue strain on the muscles of the upper back.

SHOULDERS

10-15. The shoulders should assume a neutral posture, neither rounded forward nor forcefully arched backward. Rounding the shoulders forward is the most common fault in everyday posture while walking and running. The problem is usually associated with tightness of the chest and shoulder muscles. Another problem occurs when the shoulders start to rise with fatigue or increased effort. This position not only wastes energy, but can also adversely affect breathing.

ARMS

10-16. Throughout the arm swing, the elbows should stay at roughly a 90-degree bend. The wrists stay straight and the hands remain loosely cupped. The arm swing should be free of tension, but do not allow the hands to cross the midline of the body.

TRUNK AND PELVIS

10-17. The trunk should remain over its base of support, the pelvis. A common problem with fatigue is allowing the trunk to lean forward of the legs and pelvis. This forces the lower back muscles to expend too much energy resisting further trunk lean to the front.

LEGS

10-18. For distance running, much of the power is generated from below the knee. Energy is wasted as the knees come higher and the large muscles of the hips and thighs are engaged. Practice getting a strong push-off from the ankle of the back leg. This helps to lengthen the stride naturally. Lengthening the stride by reaching forward with the front leg will be counterproductive.

FEET

10-19. The feet should be pointed directly forward while running. With fatigue and certain muscle imbalances, the legs and feet may start to rotate outward. This may hinder performance and create abnormal stresses that contribute to injury.

BREATHING

10-20. Breathing should be rhythmic in nature and coordinated with the running stride.

MILITARY MOVEMENT DRILL 1

10-21. The purpose of MMD1 in the toughening phase (Figure 10-3) is to enhance running form, dynamically prepare the body for more vigorous running activities, and develop motor efficiency. Military movement drill 1 is conducted following preparation and the HSD prior to running activities during the PRT session. Any level area of adequate size is appropriate for conducting MMD1. Beware of hazards such as holes, uneven terrain and rocks. Use caution when conducting MMD1 on wet terrain. This drill is conducted using the extended rectangular formation (covered) and performed by rank. Military movement drill 1 consists of exercises performed at 25-yard intervals: verticals, laterals, and the shuttle sprint. Refer to Table 10-2 for endurance and mobility activities, prescriptions of intensity, duration, and volume within the toughening and sustaining phases. In addition, Chapter 5, Planning Considerations, provides the template for commanders and PRT leaders to implement endurance and mobility activities into their PRT programs.

MILITARY MOVEMENT DRILL 1

EXERCISE 1: VERTICALS

Purpose: This exercise helps to develop proper running form (Figure 10-4).

Starting Position: Staggered stance with the right foot forward. The right heel is even with the toes of the left foot. The right arm is to the rear with the elbow slightly bent and the left arm is forward. The head is up, looking straight ahead, and the knees are slightly bent.

Movement: Bring the hips quickly to 90-degrees of bend without raising the knees above waist level. Ground contact should be primarily with the balls of the feet. When the left leg is forward, the right arm swings forward and the left arm swings to the rear. When the right leg is forward, the left arm swings forward and the right arm swings to the rear.

Check Points:

  • Arm swing is strong and smooth with the forward arm at 90-degrees and the rearward arm relatively straight.
  • Arm swing is from front to rear, not side to side, with the upper part of the forward arm reaching parallel to the ground as it swings to the front.
  • Keep a tall stance with a stable, upright trunk. The back remains perpendicular to the ground. There should not be any back swing of the legs.

Precaution: N/A

MILITARY MOVEMENT DRILL 1

EXERCISE 2: LATERALS

Purpose: This exercise develops the ability to move laterally (Figure 10-5).

Starting Position: Straddle stance, slightly crouched, with the back straight, arms at the side with elbows bent at 90-degrees and palms facing forward. Face perpendicular to the direction of movement.

Movement: Step out with the lead leg and then bring the trail leg up and toward the lead leg. The Soldier always faces the same direction so that for the first 25-yards he is moving to the left and for the second 25-yards he is moving to the right.

Check Points:

  • Pick the feet up with each step. Avoid dragging the feet along the ground.
  • Crouch slightly while keeping the back straight.
  • Avoid hitting the feet and ankles together on each step.

• Rank leaders will face their rank throughout the exercise. Precaution: N/A

MILITARY MOVEMENT DRILL 1

EXERCISE 3: SHUTTLE SPRINT

Purpose: This exercise develops anaerobic endurance, leg speed, and agility (Figure 10-6).

Starting Position: Staggered stance with the right foot forward. The right heel is even with the toes of the left foot. The right arm is to the rear with the elbow slightly bent and the left arm is forward. The head is up looking straight ahead and the knees are slightly bent.

Movement: Run quickly to the 25-yard mark (as arrow 1 in the following exercise illustration shows). Turn clockwise while planting the left foot and bending and squatting to touch the ground with the left hand. Run quickly back to the starting line (arrow 2) and plant the right foot, then turn counterclockwise and touch the ground with the right hand. Run back to the 25-yard mark (arrow 3) accelerating to near maximum speed.

Check Points:

  • Soldiers should slow their movement before planting feet and changing direction.
  • Soldiers should squat while bending the trunk when reaching to touch the ground as they change direction.
  • Soldiers touch the ground with their left hand on the first turn, then with their right hand on the second turn.
  • Accelerate to near maximum speed during the last 25-yard interval.

Precaution: Soldiers should use caution when performing this exercise on wet terrain.

MILITARY MOVEMENT DRILL 2

10-22. The purpose of MMD2 in the sustaining phase is to enhance running form, dynamically prepare the body for more vigorous running activities, and develop motor efficiency. Military movement drill 2 is conducted following preparation and the HSD prior to running activities during the PRT session. Military movement 2 contains three dynamic, plyometric exercises that are conducted in the same manner as MMD1. If both drills are conducted, MMD1 should precede MMD2. DO NOT mix exercises between the two drills. Perform the drills as prescribed in this TC. Refer to Table 10-2 for endurance and mobility activities, prescriptions of intensity, and duration and volume within the toughening and sustaining phases. In addition, Chapter 5, Planning Considerations, provides the template for commanders and PRT leaders to implement endurance and mobility activities into their PRT programs.

MILITARY MOVEMENT DRILL 2

EXERCISE 1: POWER SKIP

Purpose: This exercise develops leg power, coordination, and jumping ability from a single leg. It also promotes a powerful extension from the ankle, knee, and hip. (Figure 10-7).

Starting Position: Staggered stance with right foot forward.

Movement: Step with the left foot, then hop and land on the left leg followed by the same action with the opposite leg. When the right leg is forward, the left arm swings forward and the right arm is to the rear. When the left leg is forward, the right arm swings forward and the left arm is to the rear.

Check Points:

  • Start slowly and progress the speed and height of the skip throughout each 25-yard interval.
  • Soldiers should gradually incorporate larger arm swings as they jump to get higher elevation. Arm swing is strong and smooth with the forward arm at 90-degrees and the rearward arm relatively straight.
  • Arm swing is from front to rear, not side to side, with the upper part of the forward arm reaching parallel to the ground as it swings to the front.

Precaution: N/A

MILITARY MOVEMENT DRILL 2

EXERCISE 2: CROSSOVERS

Purpose: This exercise improves leg coordination and trains Soldiers to move laterally (Figure 10-8).

Starting Position: Straddle stance, slightly crouched, with the back straight, arms at the side with elbows bent at 90-degrees, and palms facing forward or holding weapon. Face perpendicular to direction of movement.

Movement: Cross the trail leg first to the front of the lead leg and step in the direction of travel to return to the starting position. Then cross the trail leg to the rear of the lead leg and step in the direction of travel to return to the starting position. Repeat sequence to the 25-yard stop point. Always face the same direction so that movement of the first 25-yards is to the left and movement of the second 25-yards is to the right.

Check Points:

  • Pick the feet up with each step. Avoid dragging the feet along the ground.
  • Crouch slightly while keeping the back straight.
  • Maintain the trunk perpendicular to the direction of travel while allowing the hips to move naturally.

• Rank leaders will face their rank throughout the exercise. Precaution: N/A

MILITARY MOVEMENT DRILL 2

EXERCISE 3: CROUCH RUN

Purpose: This exercise develops the ability to run quickly in a crouched position (Figure 10-9).

Starting Position: Assume the starting position for exercise three of CD 1: mountain climber.

Movement: Power out of the starting position, performing one repetition of mountain climber, then upon finishing count 4, run forward in the crouch position to the 25-yard mark. Turn clockwise while planting the left foot and bending and squatting to touch the ground with the left hand, as in performing the shuttle sprint in MMD1. Crouch run quickly back to the starting line and plant the right foot, turn counter-clockwise and touch the ground with the right hand. Accelerate out of the crouch run to an upright position and sprint back to the 25-yard mark gradually accelerating to near maximum speed.

Check Points:

  • Move from the crouch run starting position by executing one repletion of mountain climber and firing out of count four with the right leg and swinging the left arm forward to the crouch run.
  • On the crouch run, stay low with minimal arm swing.
  • Soldiers should slow their movement before planting their feet and changing direction.
  • Soldiers should squat while bending the trunk when reaching to touch the ground as they change direction.
  • Soldiers touch the ground with their left hand on the first turn, then with their right hand on the second turn.
  • Accelerate to near maximum speed during the last 25-yard interval.

Precaution: Soldiers should use caution when performing this exercise on wet terrain.

SPEED RUNNING

10-23. Speed running is based on the training principle that a greater amount of intense work can be performed if the work is interspersed with periods of recovery. Improvements in physical fitness are affected to a greater extent by the intensity of training than by the frequency or duration of the training. During speed running, Soldiers perform a work interval in a specified time for a specific number of repetitions. The work intervals are followed immediately by an active recovery interval. Multiple work intervals cause the onset of fatigue many times during a single training session. Speed running improves the resistance to fatigue of the active muscles by repeatedly exposing them to high intensity effort. As a result of their increased anaerobic and aerobic endurance, Soldiers are able to sustain performance of physically demanding tasks at a higher intensity for a longer duration. The training stimulus associated with speed running occurs from the combination of work and recovery. A very short recovery period may not allow the body to recover sufficiently to perform the next work interval at the desired intensity. A very long recovery period may allow the body to recover too much and some of the training effect would be lost. Generally, duration of the recovery period depends on the intensity and duration of the work interval. An appropriate work to recovery ratio for improving Soldier physical readiness is 1:2. Speed running has three variables: work duration, recovery duration, and the number of repetitions. The speed running activities appropriate for Soldiers to improve physical readiness and APFT 2-mile run performance are 30:60s and 60:120s. Refer to Table 10-2 for appropriate speed running prescriptions for the toughening and sustaining phases. When conducting speed running, the AIs will perform the activity by

running with Soldiers in the unit. This allows the AI’s to continually monitor and motivate Soldiers throughout

the conduct of the exercise. The PRT leader positions himself to supervise the conduct of speed running and uses a stopwatch and a whistle for signaling the ―Start‖ and ―Stop‖ of each work and rest interval. Refer to Table 10-2 for endurance and mobility activities, prescriptions of intensity, and duration and volume within the toughening and sustaining phases. In addition, Chapter 5, Planning Considerations, provides the template for commanders and PRT leaders to implement endurance and mobility activities into their PRT programs.

30:60S

10-24. Soldiers will perform 30:60s adhering to a work to recovery ratio of 1:2. During the work interval, Soldiers will sprint for 30 seconds. During the recovery interval, Soldiers walk for 60 seconds. This is one repetition of a 30:60. Speed running will cause Soldiers to spread out over the course of the running track during the work interval. If required, the PRT Leader will have Soldiers regroup before the start of the next work interval. Soldiers run at a slow pace (jog) ¼ mile before beginning 30:60s. Table 10-2 shows speed running progression. Soldiers should walk at least 3 minutes before performing additional activities or recovery.

60:120S

10-25. Soldiers perform 60:120s adhering to a work to recovery ratio of 1:2. During the work interval, Soldiers sprint for 60 seconds. During the recovery interval, Soldiers walk for 120 seconds. This is one repetition of a 60:120. Speed running causes Soldiers to spread out over the course of the running track during the work interval. If required, the PRT leader has Soldiers regroup before the start of the next work interval. All ability groups should run at a slow pace (jog) ¼ mile before beginning 60:120s. Table 10-2 shows speed running progression. Soldiers should walk at least 3 minutes before performing additional activities or recovery.

TRAINING AREAS FOR SPEED RUNNING

10-26. Ideally, the training area for the conduct of 30:60s and 60:120s is a ¼-mile or a 400-meter oval running track. The PRT leader should stand in the middle of the training area so he can see all Soldiers. From there, the Soldiers can easily hear his whistled commands to start and stop walking and running intervals. If 30:60s or 60:120s are conducted on a road, the route MUST be wide enough for Soldiers to turn around and not collide. The recommended distances for conducting 30:60s or 60:120s on a straight road course is at least 100 yards and a maximum of 200 yards (Figure 10-10).

300-YARD SHUTTLE RUN

10-27. The 300-yard SR run develops the ability to repeatedly sprint after changing direction. It is an indicator of the Soldier’s anaerobic endurance, speed, and agility. The 300-yard SR is conducted from the extended rectangular formation (covered) as shown in Figure 10-3. On the command, ‖Ready,‖ one Soldier in each column will move behind the starting line and assume the ready position (staggered stance). On the command, ―GO,‖ Soldiers sprint to a line 25-yards from the starting line. They must touch the line or beyond it with their left hand, then return to touch the starting/finish line with their right hand. This is considered one repetition. Soldiers will perform six repetitions alternating touching the lines with opposite hands. On the last (sixth) repetition, Soldiers sprint past the starting/finish line without touching it. The PRT leader and AIs ensure that Soldiers sprint in their own lanes and run with their heads up to watch for other Soldiers who may be moving in the opposite direction. Figure 10-11 shows the running patterns and requirements of the 300-yard SR. Refer to Table 10-2 for endurance and mobility activities, prescriptions of intensity, duration, and volume within the toughening and sustaining phases. In addition, Chapter 5, Planning Considerations, provides the template for commanders and PRT leaders to implement endurance and mobility activities into their PRT programs.

HILL REPEATS

10-28. Hill repeats are an effective means of developing explosive leg strength, speed and anaerobic endurance. Both uphill and downhill running intervals are important. Uphill repeats build leg strength, power, and anaerobic endurance, while downhill repeats improve speed though rapid leg turn-over and releasing neural inhibitions. The intensity and duration of the repetitions will depend on the characteristics of the hill. The PRT leader designates the number of repetitions and signals the start of each group or individual. Hill repeats should not be conducted under load. Refer to Table 10-2 for endurance and mobility activities, prescriptions of intensity, duration, and volume within the toughening and sustaining phases. In addition, Chapter 5, Planning Considerations, provides the template for commanders and PRT leaders to implement endurance and mobility activities into their PRT programs.

UPHILL REPEATS

10-29. A short, steep hill is ideal for explosive uphill efforts of 15-20 seconds sprinting up 40-60 yards and 60-90 seconds walking back down for 6 to 10 repetitions. On uphill repeats, lean slightly forward without bending at the waist. On steep hills, the knees will need to rise higher than normal to permit a full stride. Refer to Table 10-2 for endurance and mobility activities, prescriptions of intensity, duration, and volume within the toughening and sustaining phases. In addition, Chapter 5, provides the template for commanders and PRT leaders to implement endurance and mobility activities into their PRT programs.

DOWNHILL REPEATS

10-30. Long, gentle slopes are best for improving speed through downhill repeats. Downhill repeats are performed at a high intensity of 15-20 seconds of downhill sprinting (near maximal effort) with rest intervals consisting of walking back up the hill for 60-90 seconds for 6 to 10 repetitions. It is important to maintain good form during HR, especially when running downhill. Refer to Table 10-2 for endurance and mobility activities, prescriptions of intensity, duration, and volume within the toughening and sustaining phases. In addition, Chapter 5, provides the template for commanders and PRT leaders to implement endurance and mobility activities into their PRT programs.

ABILITY GROUP RUN

10-31. The AGR trains Soldiers in groups of near-equal ability. Each ability group runs at a prescribed pace intense enough to produce a training effect for that group and each Soldier in it. Leaders should program these runs for specific lengths of time, not miles to be run. This training method provides a challenge for each ability group while controlling injuries. The PRT leader conducts a 1-mile run assessment to assign Soldiers in ability groups. Based on each Soldier’s 1-mile run assessment time, the PRT leader assigns the Soldier to one of the groups shown in Table 10-3.

Table 10-3. Ability group assignment

Toughening Phase AGR Assignments Sustaining Phase AGR Assignments
A Group, 7:15 and faster A Group, 6:30 and faster
B Group, 7:16 to 8:15 B Group, 6:31 to 7:15
C Group, 8:16 to 10:15 C Group, 7:16 to 8:00
D Group, 10:16 and slower D Group, 8:01 and slower

10-32. Some Soldiers may make the cut off times to qualify for an ability group but are unable to maintain the prescribed running pace listed in the PRT schedule. If this occurs, they may drop down to the slower group and progress later to the faster running group. Ability group runs must be conducted for the duration and intensity specified in the training schedules in Chapter 5, Planning Considerations. The frequency of AGRs is one or two times per week. Ability group runs, speed running, and foot marching (greater than 5 km) should not be conducted on the same or consecutive days. The running duration is determined by time, not distance. Soldiers should move to faster groups when they are ready because they progress at different rates. Those who have difficulty maintaining the specified pace within an ability group should be placed in a slower ability group. Supervision will prevent a constant shifting of Soldiers between groups due to lack of individual effort. See the training schedules in Chapter 5, Planning Considerations, for AGR times and pace. Routes used for sustained running in ability groups should be well lighted, free from hazards and traffic, and marked at ¼-mile intervals. Ability group leaders will ensure running is at the proper pace prescribed for their group by checking their split times at each ¼-mile marker along the route. Table 10-4 shows the appropriate ¼-mile split time based on the AGR pace.

Table 10-4. Quarter-mile split times based on AGR pace

Pace/Mile 1/4-Mile Split Pace/Mile 1/4-Mile Split Pace/Mile 1/4-Mile Split
6:00 6:15 6:30 6:45 7:00 7:15 7:30 7:45 8:00 1:30 1:34 1:37 1:42 1:45 1:48 1:52 1:56 2:00 8:15 8:30 8:45 9:00 9:15 9:30 9:45 10:00 10:15 2:03 2:07 2:11 2:15 2:19 2:23 2:27 2:30 2:34 10:30 10:45 11:00 11:15 11:30 11:45 12:00 12:15 12:30 2:38 2:42 2:45 2:49 2:53 2:57 3:00 3:04 3:07

10-33. Refer to Table 10-2 for endurance and mobility activities, prescriptions of intensity, duration, and volume within the toughening and sustaining phases. In addition, Chapter 5, Planning Considerations, provides the template for commanders and PRT leaders to implement endurance and mobility activities into their PRT programs.

UNIT FORMATION RUN

10-34. The UFR elicits intangible rewards gained from running with a group, such as esprit de corps, team building, and discipline. Unit formation runs are based on a time and/or distance that can be achieved with unit integrity and a display of unit cohesion. Unit formation runs are organized by squad, platoon, company, or battalion; not by ability. Keeping a large unit in step, with proper distance intervals and correct running form, offers intangible benefits that commander’s desire. Commanders should not use UFRs as the foundation of their PRT program. They should be performed no more than once per quarter due to the limited training effect offered for the entire unit. The UFR begins with a gradual increase in intensity for the first three minutes or ¼ mile, then continues at a prescribed target pace for a specified time, and concludes with a gradual decrease in intensity for the last three minutes or ¼ mile. The gradual increase and gradual decrease quarter miles will be conducted at a pace two minutes slower than the target pace. The unit commander is responsible for establishing a pace achievable by all Soldiers in the unit. Refer to Table 10-2 for endurance and mobility activities, prescriptions of intensity, duration, and volume within the toughening and sustaining phases. In addition, Chapter 5, Planning Considerations, provides the template for commanders and PRT leaders to implement endurance and mobility activities into their PRT programs.

RELEASE RUN

10-35. The RR combines the benefits of formation running and individual performance at higher training intensities. Soldiers will run in formation for a specified time (no more than 15 minutes), then released to run as fast as they can back to the starting point. Upon completion of the release run, additional PRT activities may be conducted or recovery performed. Refer to Table 10-2 for endurance and mobility activities, prescriptions of intensity, duration, and volume within the toughening and sustaining phases. In addition, Chapter 5, Planning Considerations, provides the template for commanders and PRT leaders to implement endurance and mobility activities into their PRT programs.

TERRAIN RUN

10-36. The TR applies the train for combat proficiency concept to PRT. Running through local training areas, over hills, and around obstacles improves mobility, endurance, and the ability to stop, start, and change direction. Terrain running is designed to be conducted with small unit integrity. This type of running is best performed by squads and sections. Distances should generally be 1 mile for densely wooded areas and up to 2 miles on tank trails and open fields. Intensity is relative to the terrain. Physical readiness training leaders will form the unit and maintain an interval suitable for the terrain and environmental conditions. Soldiers should perform terrain running in ACUs and well-fitting boots. Soldiers may progress to performing terrain running with IBA, ACH, individual weapon, and under fighting load. Refer to Table 10-2 for endurance and mobility activities, prescriptions of intensity, duration, and volume within the toughening and sustaining phases. In addition, Chapter 5, Planning Considerations, provides the template for commanders and PRT leaders to implement endurance and mobility activities into their PRT programs.

FOOT MARCHES

10-37. Foot marching as a movement component of maneuver is a critical Soldier physical requirement. Regular foot marching helps to avoid the cumulative effects of lower injury trauma and prepares Soldiers to successfully move under load. See FM 21-18, Foot Marching, for specific instructions and guidance for the conduct of foot marches.

CONDITIONING OBSTACLE COURSE

10-38. Obstacle course running develops physical capacities, fundamental skills, and abilities that are important to Soldiers in combat operations. Soldiers must be able to crawl, creep, climb, walk, run, and jump. Furthermore, with individual body armor and fighting load, they must be able to perform all these tasks for long periods of time without exhaustion or injury, even after fatigue has set in. Refer to Appendix E for obstacle negotiation.

ENDURANCE TRAINING MACHINES

10-39. When using ETM there are four primary variables to consider: exercise mode, training frequency, exercise duration, and training intensity. Exercise prescription specifies training frequency, exercise duration, and training intensity. The mode of exercise (type of ETM) is determined by environmental constraints and/or training IAW physical profile limitations (temporary/permanent). Each ETM contains specific instructions for proper use and adjustments for the Soldier to obtain optimal posture during endurance exercise (seat height on cycle ergometers or seat distance on rowing machines). If the ETM has no visible list of operating instructions, ask the PRT leader or AI for assistance (Figure 10-12).

EXERCISE MODE

10-40. Exercise mode refers to the specific activity performed by the Soldier: running, cycling, swimming, and the use of a variety of endurance training equipment. There are advantages to using endurance training equipment (environmental constraints, safety for Soldiers on physical profile, and isolation of specific muscle groups to be trained during rehabilitation and reconditioning). Consideration for use of specific types of equipment may be based on the Soldier’s ability to participate in weight-bearing or non-weight-bearing activities. Weight-bearing activities include walking or running on a treadmill and using a stair climbing/stepping machine. Non-weight-bearing and limited weight-bearing activities include use of cycle ergometers (upright/recumbent) elliptical trainers, rowers, climbing machines, and cross-country ski machines. Use of limited or non-weight-bearing endurance training equipment is desirable for obtaining higher caloric expenditure through additional training sessions by overweight Soldiers trying to reduce body fat. Each of these modes typically provide the Soldier with a variety of individual exercise routines that monitor and display exercise duration, training intensity (heart rate/pace/watts), caloric expenditure, and distance completed (miles/km). See Figure 10-12 for examples of various types of endurance training equipment.

TRAINING FREQUENCY

10-41. Training frequency refers to the number of training sessions conducted per day or per week. Training frequency is determined by exercise duration and training intensity. Training sessions that involve high intensity or longer duration may necessitate less frequent training to allow for adequate recovery. Normal endurance training frequency is three to five exercise sessions per week.

EXERCISE DURATION

10-42. Exercise duration is 20 minutes or longer and varies from machine to machine, depending on the intensity of the exercise routine being performed (hill profile, speed, degree of incline, resistance). Most exercise sessions of high or moderate intensity should last 20 to 30 minutes. Endurance exercise sessions that address additional caloric expenditure for body fat reduction should be of low intensity and may last up to 60 minutes.

TRAINING INTENSITY

10-43. Training intensity is typically monitored and displayed on the exercise equipment control panel in terms of heart rate, pace (mph/kph, step rate), watts, kiloponds, caloric expenditure (kcals), or resistance.

Summary
The activities in this chapter develop the endurance and mobility demanded of WTBDs. A
properly designed PRT running program strikes a balance between speed and sustained
running to train the full spectrum of endurance. Endurance training equipment is used to
accommodate environmental constraints and/or training IAW Soldiers’ physical profile

limitations.


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